To ease tensions, the United States and Japan agreed in 2006 to transfer Futenma to a less populated area of Okinawa and transfer 8,000 marines to Guam. But the agreement has yet to be implemented. Many residents and local officials oppose the maintenance of the Okinawa base and voted against the relocation plan in early 2019. Abe insisted, however, that relocation would take place soon and that some marines could be transferred in the coming years. On 19 January 1960, Japanese Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi and US Secretary of State Christian Herter signed a landmark treaty. It forced the United States to defend Japan in the event of an attack by Japan and provided bases and ports to U.S. forces in Japan. The agreement has survived half a century of dramatic changes in world politics — the Vietnam War, the collapse of the Soviet Union, the proliferation of nuclear weapons in North Korea, the rise of China — and despite the heated trade controversies, the exchange of insults and deep cultural and historical differences between the United States and Japan. This treaty lasted longer than any other alliance of two great powers since the peace of Westphalia in 1648. The Peace Treaty recognizes that Japan, as a sovereign nation, has the right to enter into collective security arrangements and the Charter of the United Nations recognizes that all nations have an inherent right to individual and collective self-defence. According to a 2007 Survey by the Okinawa Times, 73.4% of Japanese believed that the mutual security contract with the United States and the presence of U.S. forces.  Since 1945, the U.S.
military has largely treated Okinawa as its own stronghold. About 12,500 Americans died and 37,000 were wounded in the battle of the island. Until his official return to Japan in 1972, the U.S. military ruled the place free hand and often opposed the wishes of both the Japanese government and the U.S. State Department. In one incident, in 1966, the U.S. military secretly transported nuclear weapons from Okinawa to Honshu, Japan`s main island, in flagrant violation of the 1960 agreement. The U.S.
military has also resisted Okinawa`s reversal, and continues to take a proprietary stance toward what`s going on there. In 1960, the agreement between the United States and Japan was revised, which granted the United States the right to establish bases in the archipelago in exchange for an obligation to defend Japan in the event of an attack. The bases gave the U.S. military its first permanent stop in Asia. Years later, the United States sparked protests in Japan using bases to support combat operations during the Vietnam War. Shortly after the 12-year-old Japanese high school student was raped in 1995 by two U.S. Marines and a U.S. sailor, U.S. Secretary of Defense William Perry launched a plan to reduce the U.S.
military presence in Okinawa. The two governments developed an implementation agreement in 2006. But instead of helping to solve the problem, the agreement triggered the first conflict between Hatoyama and U.S. President Barack Obama. But the U.S. government has been slow to adapt to Tokyo`s new political horizon. Hatoyama seems to want to reduce the us footprint in Japan. In November 1996, he wrote to the monthly Bungei Shunju that the security treaty should be renegotiated to eliminate the presence of U.S. troops and bases in Japan by 2010. Hatoyama`s political philosophy implies a vague concept of Yuai (fraternity) among neighboring countries. And he sometimes talked about building an East Asian community that would exclude the United States. However, Americans who know him quickly assert that he is not anti-American, but he believes in a more egalitarian relationship.
But the two chiefs were extraordinarily hamhanded in their initial affairs. One problem is the Futenma Marine Corps airbase in the city of Ginowan in Okinawa, whose 80,000 residents are disrupted every two minutes by the deafening noise of the United States.